For the red wines, the whole bunches of grapes are cooled and (usually) destemmed but not crushed, and dropped directly into our two tonne open fermenters, thus avoiding the need to pump must. After four to six days of maceration, the primary (wild yeast) fermentation begins. This takes about a week to complete with the temperature peaking at about 34º centigrade. A few more days on skins completes a total maceration time of 19-21 days when the new wine is pressed and, after a day or two to settle out the gross lees, it is transferred to barrel. A natural malolactic fermentation occurs in the following spring. The wine is racked only once when it is assembled and prepared for bottling.